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Shamans of the Foye Tree [Mapuc^e in the Temuco area of Chile]


p. term definition
1 foye canelo (Drimys winteri) tree
mac^i "shamans"
10 lonko "chief", "head"
17 kalku "witch"
18 datun "healing rituals"
19 winka "non-Mapuche"
c^ampurrea "mestizo"
23 trawa "body"
nen ‘deity’
24 pu:llu: "living soul"
am "soul that remains after death"
mac^i-pu:llu: "the specific spirit that guides a machi’s actions"
filew "ancestral spirit of ... machi"
c^aw ‘old man’
n~uke ‘old woman’
29 kutran "illnesses"
73 yegu:lfe female "ritual helper"
76 piuke "heart"
rakiduam "thought"
96 zuam "consciousness"
99 nu:nku:n "emotion"

guises of wekufe-spirits controlled by kalku

p. spirit description
17 c^errufe "fireballs"
22 c^on-c^on "evil bird"
piwic^en "winged serpent"
meulen "whirlwinds"

p. 24 the 2 mapu (‘worlds’)

__ mapu its spirit-occupants locations manifestations
wenu deities & ancestral spirits "sky" sun, moon, stars
munc^e wekufe "under the earth" "volcanic eruptions, ... and whirlwinds"

p. 265, n. 4:14 "when a young woman was possessed by an evil spirit [wekufe] ... she danced life a meulen." {i.e., whirling, in the dervish style}

pp. 26-27 mac^i-pu:llu: spirits inherited "from a deceased machi on the mother’s side of the family"

p. spirit description
26 pu:llomen~ "green fly"
27 luam "guanaco"
lican "precious stone"

pp. 34-35 behavior of wekufe-spirits

p. spirit
34 "The sumpall, a beautiful blond mermaid, seduces and kills young Mapuche men in the river and steals their souls."
"The witranalwe is a spirit ... tall, thin ... . ... His wife is the an~chu:mallen~, a small, white, luminous being with iridescent eyes ... . Her lips are red with sucking her victims’ blood; she cries like a baby, not like an adult ... . ... the an~chu:mallen~ as "a little light that walks around ... . The people take care of it like a baby, then the an~chu:mallen~ helps them and gives them everything ... .""
35 "Other human-like wekufe include Punkure and Punfu:ta, nocturnal ... spouses who seduce their victims in their dreams, take their life energy, and render them infertile, impotent, or unable to establish romantic and sexual relationships with human partners. ... "The affected person gets accustomed to this new power, which transforms itself into a man at night and tries to conquer and seduce the machi by sleeping with her." ... There is a woman who appears to this young man in bed at night as if she were her lover [Punkure]. ... At this moment, he believes that this woman is his wife".

myths of creation

p. myth
262, n. 3:3 deity : "Fu:ta Newen (Big Spirit ...); Elmapun (Creator of the Earth ...); and Ngenmapun (Sustainer of the World ...)."
46 "The big spirit lived with a number of little spirits [children], ... the big spirit spat on them, and their bodies turned to stone. They fell to the earth and became mountains. Some spirits ... inside the earth ... turned the mountains into smoking and erupting volcanoes. They were ... male warrior spirits in the form of thunder, lightning, volcanoes, and stones. ... Other spirits ... were the big spirit’s daughters, who were transformed into stars that mourned their brothers. {"the stars mourned Sohrab’s death" (FM&L, p. 156) In <arabic myth, "stars mourn" the slain sky-warrior (PSP)} Their tears formed lakes and rivers." "In the Mapuche creation myth (epeu), the initial ordering of the world is followed by a deluge in which most of mankind ... is transformed into sea creatures. {cf. the Aztec 4th world-destruction, "that of Chalchiuhtlicue, when the deluge came and men became fishes"(HR, p. 101; cf. ED, p. 211) According to the Akar-Bale tribe, "The people ran into the sea and became fishes." (M&LA, p. 204)} Some humans survive on the mountains, but they resort to cannibalism".


FM&L = Donna Rosenberg : Folklore, Myths, and Legends. McGraw-Hill, 1997.


HR = E. Washburn Hopkins : The History of Religions. Macmillan Co, 1918.

ED = G. Elliot Smith : The Evolution of the Dragon. 1919.


AI = A. R. Radcliffe-Brown : The Andaman Islanders. Cambridge U Pr, 1922.

pp. 51-52, 58 construction of musical instruments

p. musical instrument
51 [drum :] "The kultrun is a shallow drum often consisting of a bowl of laurel (triwe) or oak covered with a goatskin ... . ... "The spirits of machi ask them to make their drums deeper and rounder ... . The machi spirit chooses the sounds and tells the machi in a dream, and I make the kultrun ... to fit those sounds." Mapuche often conceive of the kultrun ... as representing the Mapuche universe, which consists of Mapuche knowledge, education,
52 medicine (lawen), and thought (rakiduam). ... A machi often shouts "Machi!" four times into the kultrun before it is covered with the skin, so that the drum holds her spirit and strength as well as those of the four people in Ngu:nechen. Inside the kultrun, machi place pairs and groups of four of objects ... . Mapuche often equate the crashing sound of these objects inside the kultrun with the sounds of ... rain, or waterfalls ... . Machi often paint their kultrun with a cross that divides the drum’s surface into quarters and represents the meli witran mapu, or fourfold division of the world."
58 "Those associated with Yong Woman include the kaskawilla, four ... bells that are thought to contain the sound of sacred waterfalls and rain ... . ... The symbol most obviously associated with the powers of Young Man is the trutruka, a trumpet made from a horn and a hollow coligu:e cane. The sound passes through the long cane of the trutruka and comes out through the tip of the horn ... . The pifilka, or wooden flute, made from laurel wood, is also associated with Young Man. Ordinarily, only young men play the trutruka and the pifilka."

pp. 52-58 altar & its rewe (sacred notched post); their sacred plants; lan-lan

p. altar
52 "Once a symbol of peace, the foye tree today has become a symbol of office for both female and male machi and the place where the machi’s spirit resides. It represents the machi’s ability to move between worlds ... of Ngu:nechen. Machi each have their rewe at home, where they maintain their
53 personal connection with their possessing spirit (machi pu:llu: or filew) and travel to other worlds during ku:ymi, or altered state of consciousness ... . The machi’s filew is believed to live in the altar. The step-notched pole rewe {cf. step-notched log for climbing onto longhouse-platform in Borneo} is usually made from laurel or oak ... . Branches of klon (maqui, or Aristotelia chilensis), triwe (Laurelia sempervirens), foye (Drymis winteri), and coligu:e (bamboo, or koliu) are tied to its side. ... Machi place knives, volcanic rocks, and chueca sticks ... on the top and steps of the rewe to protect the filew against attacks by evil spirits. They also place kopiwe flowers ... on the steps or at the foot of the rewe in order to ... seduce the filew."
"Triwe, or laurel, ... is used against ... headaches, bad temper, tachycardia, and antisocial behavior. At the same time, triwe can give protection against evil forces ... by means of its bitter sap. The klon plant represents the community, or lof ... . ... The meli-ko-lawen (marsh marigold, Caltha sagitta) ... concentrates the healing power coming from four streams (meli) or water (ko). ... trayenko, or waterfalls, ... machi often visit in order to ask for ... good luck ... of ... meli-ko-lawen at a nearby waterfall ... .
55 ... nulawen plant, known for its sweet-smelling flowers and powers of love magic." "Some machi ingest palo de bruja (Latua pubiflora) or the seeds of the miyaya, or chamico, plant (Datura stramonium) in order to produce hallucinations, divine the future, exorcise evil spirits ... ."
"When machi change their rewe during ngeykurewen rituals, in which they renew their powers, they usually leave the old rewe to rot in a stream. Some machi ... believe that an old rewe ... can be put in the stream to rot only after the machi dies. ... Machi’s ascent of the rewe during rituals is a performance to communicate to onlookers that the machi has entered into ecstatic flight, but it is not required to produce the ecstatic state itself."
"Some machi also place a llang-llang – an arch made from foki (vines) in the form of a rainbow (relmu) {with the greenery of these lianas, cf. the "rainbow round about the throne, in sight like unto an emerald" (Apokalupsis of Ioannes 4:3)} – above their rewe to represent their intimate connection with the ... ngen nature
56 spirits that they meet in their visions. ... a machi ... saw the llang-llang as "embracing her like the rainbow" ... . When a machi’s helpers spit water over the machi’s head, they are emulating the rainbow and invoking its powers. ... One type of vine, the kopiwe, ... the Mapuche associate ... with the wild spirits of the forest ... . ... Machi use kopiwe to help with the symptoms of their initial calling and with sudden encounters with evil spirits." "A necklace made from llankalawen (Lycopodium paniculatum) leaves is
58 the male counterpart of the kopiwe. The name llankalawen, or "precious medicine" ... derives from llanka, the precious green stone used for sacrificial offerings and for indemnity payments ... . ... Other vines important to machi practice include the wenu-likan (sacred stones from the sky); the witral-lawen (medicine of the loom), which weaves itself into people; and the wichil-wichil (very curved foki), the coils of which are charged with spiritual energy".

pp. 82-85 initiation of new female mac^i

p. initiation
82 The shamaness-initiatess "wore a blue head scarf and an elegant black shawl with a pink stripe. Her necklace and blood-red kopiwe flowers and llankalawen leaves and her heavy silver breastplate swayed as she turned from side to side, beating her new drum, or kultrun, with four red suns painted on its face. [The shamaness-initiatess]’s machi spirit – her machi pu:llu:, or filew (literally, "the knowledgeable one") – live simultaneously in the wenu mapu; in [the shamaness]’s head, kultrun, and rewe; and in the spirit [animals] with whom she exchanged breath and blood. ["Some machi transfer power to their inititiates by cutting crosses into the palms of their hands and rubbing them together in order to mix their blood." (p. 264, n. 4:4)] Possession, spirit travel, dreams, and visions would give [the new shamaness] the knowledge to divine, heal, and grant blessings.
82-3 During her initiation, the [shamaness-initiatess] forged ties of spiritual kinship with other machi and with animals".
83 "On ... the day of [the shamaness-initiatess]’s initiation, or machiluwu:n, [her 2 intiatrices-shamanesses] visited her ... . For two days, from dawn to dusk, they healed [the shamaness-initiatess] of the spiritual illness (machikutran), caused by a machi spirit, that pressures the neophyte to became a machi. ... her father, tied the animals to stakes on the left-hand side of her rewe. He circled their eyes, noses, and mouths with blue paint, the color of the sky, so that their senses and skills would be put at the service of [the shamaness-initiatess]’s spiritual gifts."
84 "The [2 initiatrices-shamanesses] moved slowly up the path toward [the shamaness-initiatess]’s house, turning from side to side with each beat of the drum, each followed by an entourage of helpers : four n~ankan, men who play flutes and ance with the machi while she is in ku:ymi, or an altered state of consciousness; a dungumachife, or "master of words," who ... interprets the metaphorical language spoken by spirits into a language understood by all {cf. interpretation by prophet by the utterances of the Delphic Pythoness (HG, vol. 1, p. 189)}; two yegu:lfe, or
85 women helpers, to heat and play the machi’s drum and hand her herbal remedies; and four afafanfe, male helpers to crash coligu:e (koliu) canes over the head of the patient, help the machi enter or exit an altered state of consciousness, and help her exorcise evil spirits. ... The three machi circled the rewe counterclockwise {because in the Southern Hemisphaire} as they danced forward, side by side. Each machi faced a male partner who danced backward ... . ... Then each machi played her kultrun."
264, n. 4:3 [taking photographs of shamaness’s initiation :] "The photo captures the soul when ... the eyes are open. Take photos when machis’ heads are covered with the head scarf, from behind, ... or when the eyes are closed."


HG = William Mitford : The History of Greece. Boston, 1823.

practice of mac^i

p. mac^i
26 "Mapuche individuals are called to machi practice through dreams (pewma) and visions (perimontun) in which spirits reveal the medicinal and spiritual qualities and herbs and give the future machi ...
27 spirit animals". [a shaman explained :] "I dreamed about my rewe with a face on it, the flags blue, white, and black. They showed me how to play kultrun, to pray, all of this in dreams".
"Neophytes become machi against their will and experience great suffering in the process. Machi pu:llu: and filew ... coerce the neophytes through a spiritual illness until they become initiated in a machiluwu:n ritual. If the machi fail to renew their powers in ngeykurewen rituals, they will become ill again. ... Neophytes experience a variety of trance states (ku:ymi) ... . They learn to control their dreams, visions, and encounters with spirits during rituals or in places of power."
"Others are initiated directly by ... earthquakes and lightning." [description of initiation of shamaness by an earthquake :] "The sky opened. They brought me down my kultrun. Then I looked upward and they gave me all the remedies I should use ... . They got my right arm and they gave it power. It tells me things. I went up to the sky, up the stairs, and there were ... herbal remedies up there. There was a man with a long mustache {cf. "Maya bald-headed lord with mustache, Tabasco" (P, p. 9, Fig. I.5)} there who looked at me. There was a stone,
28 my licancura. He told me to go and get it."
[account of perimontun with perimontu-kutran , experienced by shamaness :] "I saw a big fat snake dancing on top a canelo [foye]; it had ribbons on its head [like those used by machi in rituals]. And then I saw a rainbow. ...
31 After I saw the snake with ribbons dancing on the rewe, I began to feel ill. I had fever ... . I only saw shadows. ... I couldn’t move my fingers. ... I screamed and my mouth frothed."
[account of mac^i-kutran, experienced by shamaness :] "I could not get out of bed. I could not move my tongue, my legs. I could not hear. ... in my dreams they said that if I became a machi, then I would hear again."
"Machi perceive people who experience wedakutran [illness caused by evil spirits] as "animals ... ." They perceive the illness itself as frogs, insects, snakes, worms ... lodged in the victim’s body."
47 "Meli Ku:yen (the four moon spirits) {cf. the 4 Vaidik goddesses of moon-phases} and Meli Wangu:len (the four spirits of the stars) grant machi the power of fertility. Wu:nyelfe, or the morning star, helps them to communicate with spirits during dreams and obtain information about herbal remedies and ritual treatments."
58 "A machi’s male helpers strike koliu canes or chueca sticks (win~os) together above the machi’s head to help her enter into trance during datun (complex healing rituals)".
61 A male shaman’s sister "stood behind him and spat water over his head ro help him concentrate. His body contracted and trembled as the ancient machi spirit ... possessed him. ... In divination contexts, machi self-identify as children and servants of the spirits and beg them for healing knowledge. ...
62 [The male shaman’s sister] began conversing with [the shaman]’s machi spirit using the masculine language of the dungumachife, the ritual interpreter, who stimulates the machi’s discourse by repeating his or her words, agreeing with the machi, and interjecting specific questions about illness, ... relationships, remedies, sanctions, and actions".
63 "When the spirit comes to me, it come on very strongly and for a long time. There has to be someone who knows now to receive the word properly, to remember it, and then tell me what I said when I no longer have the spirit with me." "The machi performs the role of Old Woman Ngu:nechen, and the dungumachife performs the role of Old Man."
73 [datun caerimony to treat wenu-kutran, conducted by shamaness] "shake foye and triwe branches to scare off evil spirits ... . [The woman patient]’s daughter ... heated the skin of [the shamaness]’s kutrun to deepen its sound. ... [The shamaness] donned her silver breastplate and her headdress ...
74 and placed two crossed kitchen knives behind [the woman patient]’s head. She played the ... kultrun softly in a drumbeat called metrumtun as she called the spirits and narrated the history of her calling, powers, and initiation in four phases; her kultrun was heated after each phase. Then [the shamaness] named a variety of nature spirits and ancestors and spoke of the places where they lived. She called the names of Ngu:nechen as well as those of a variety of nature spirits, ... and she announced the arrival of her spirit ... . ... The spirits are pleased when machi demonstrate that they know who they are, and they show willingness to give healing knowledge to the machi. [The shamaness’s] niece pulled her head scarf over her face at she proceeded with a faster beat used to enter into ku:ymi. [The woman patient] referred to this beat, the tayilu:n, as ... the drumbeat of the traveling ... to other worlds ... . Six young men from the community ... clashed koliu canes above her head and screamed ... . [The shamaness]’s head shook and she entered ku:ymi. [The shamaness] played a forceful beat often referred to as trompu:nkultrun ...
75 as she began the pewuntun (divination), communicating with nature spirits, twelve warring spirits {cf. the Quechua 12 Ankari, 12 Khaqya, 12 Tuwana (ANTHROPOLOGY OF CONSCIOUSNESS, Vol. 10, pp. 213-21)}, and Ngu:nechen. She described her divination as ... "unraveling like a thread." {clues as thread-clew} ... She sucked what she saw as snakes and stones from [the woman patient]’s body, spat them out ... . ... She played the drum loudly over her head and screamed war cries, to which the other participants responded. ... [The shamaness] walked through every room of the house and then circled the house, beating the walls with a stick. ...
76 Then [the woman patient] tranced unexpectedly. She swayed, holding onto her breasts ... as she faced east. Her body trembled uncontrollably, and she screamed that she saw visions of huge black dogs {cf. the "black bitches" of goddess Hekate (GM 168.n)} ... at her feet. ... Then [the shamaness] entered into a state of konpapu:llu:. This is the final part of the trance, in which the filew reveals the cause of the illness. ...
77 The dungumachife placed two knives on Machi [the shamaness]’s chest and slid them along her arms to help the spirit leave."
102 "The words of Ngu:nechen, the filew, come through the machi pu:llu:."
103 A shamaness "described her personal soul, or pu:llu:, as "sitting beside" her body while she was being possessed by the filew. ... "The filew is up in the sky but also in the rewe guarding the pu:llu:. When the filew comes to me I feel a heat rising in my body and I am gone. ... The filew takes over. ...""


P = Diane E. Wirth : Parallels. 2003.

GM = Robert Graves : The Greek Myths. 1955.

pp. 87-89 seducing a spirit; marriage to a spirit

p. anthropoid spirit
87 "Machi make necklaces out of kopiwe flowers and llankalawen, like jewels ... . The filew, the machi of the sky, looks down, he sees these ancient jewel plants, and he likes it. ... He sees the machi’s head, all blue in the head scarf like an offering calling him, and down he comes into the machi’s head." "They perform this seduction by wearing symbols of ... wifeliness : blue or purple head scarves; ... women’s black shawls; and silver jewelry." The shamaness "periodically renewed her marriage ties with her spirit in a ritual called ngeykurewen. The action of ngeykun refers to the machi’s swaying between the foye and triwe branches tied to the rewe, and the term kurewen refers to the coupling of machi bride and spirit husband".
88 "healing ritual (datun) for a young girl who had a machi calling but who was being punished by her filew because she had not yet been initiated. The girl’s feet bled with open sores, and she went into an altered state of consciousness frequently and uncontrollably for hours on end. ... [The shaman-healer] covered the girl’s body and the four stakes ... placed at each corner of her ... bed ... with silver jewelry and necklaces made from kopiwe flowers. This was to seduce the spirit ... . ...
89 He asked the spirit to be patient, arguing that the girl would be initiated as machi as soon as she learned Mapudungu". ["in Mapudungu ... in a symbolic language" (p. 62)]
"By marrying a machi pu:llu:, a machi commits to an exclusive, lifelong relationship with a spirit ... . Jealous spirits punish machi who have romantic and sexual encounters by making them ill ... . As a result, people who become machi are often widowed, single, or have exceptional partners who are willing to ... accept that ... . Mapuche shamans ... believe that parenthood, ... sex, ... conflict with machi’s spiritual roles and weaken their powers. As spiritual brides, machi participate in the cosmic process ..., which holds priority over ... sexual and reproductive lives."

pp. 86-87, 93-94 uses of spirit-animals

p. spirit-animal
86 "Machi’s animals can experience illness on the machi’s behalf, and machi
87 become ill it their spirit animals or machi cohorts are hurt or killed." {cf. [Aztec] tonal}
93 "Machi drink the saliva of their spirit animals and blood from their ears. They receive their animals’ breath on their faces, heads, and backs to strengthen them ... . ... Sometimes, ... the "breath of life" ... that restores the machi’s strength after he or she enters into an altered state of consciousness, embodies a spirit, and travels to the wenu mapu. ...
94 If a machi is sick or is cursed, ideally, the spirit animal will get sick or die on her behalf. If a spirit animal dies, the machi must replace it with another or she will become weak and ill."

pp. 104-106 death-ritual on behalf of mac^i

p. death-ritual
104 "Mapuche perform as special funerary ritual called amulpu:llu:n ("making the soul leave") in order to help the machi’s personal spirit, or pu:llu:, find its way to the wenu mapu ... . Machi often know when they are going to die.
105 ... machi who know they are soon going to die sometimes organize a ngeykurewen ..., pay the helping machi and musicians, and then die shortly beforehand."
106 [amulpu:llu:n for dead shamaness :] "Her brother-in-law broke off the heels of her shoes so that her spirit would not clomp around the house tormenting her family. ... the mourners killed and ate [her pet spirit-animal]. [The dead shamaness]’s pu:llu: would ride the spirit of her [pet spirit-animal] to the wenu mapu. The mourners danced purrun, circling counterclockwise [the dead shamaness]’s coffin with flowers and laurel leaves in their hands. ... [The dead shamaness]’s brother-in-law slashed the skin of her drum and placed it on the casket, together with the gut of her spirit [pet] and the blue and white flags that were ordinarily planted beside her rewe. ... [The dead shamaness] was buried with her feet facing east, so that the next morning her pu:llu: could walk up into the sky and become a filew in the wenu mapu. [The dead shamaness]’s filew would sit beside Ngu:nechen, waiting".

p. 106 "Living machi in the Puren-Lumaco area of the Araucanian region, in contrast, perform rituals on the cuel, mounds under which machi and longko are publicly buried."

mac^i weye (male homosexual / transvestite shamans)

p. mac^i weye
112 "The machi weye then became possessed by a helping spirit. His eyes rolled back and his body bounced like a ball on the floor while his drum imitated its owner, jumping beside him."
117 "Machi weye were the sons of prominent longkos ... who were initiated into shamanhood through dreams and trance states. They learned ... healing ... invocations to the spirits (ampivoe), locating those who caused illness through witchcraft (ramtuvoe), autopsies (cupuvoe), divination (pelonten) ... . There were also ... the use of magical darts ... . ...
118 Female machi also existed in the seventeenth century ... .
... machi weye performed spiritual warfare against the Spaniards. They propitiated the spirits of Mapuche warriors and machi spirits (spiritual warriors) who continued warring against Spanish souls in the sky, using as weapons lightning, thunderbolts, and volcanic eruptions ... . They invoked the moon, the sun, and the planets during military divinations to gain power to cure the wounded and take vengeance on their enemies ... . ... machi weye ... accompanied Mapuche warriors to the battlefield and performed spiritual warfare from the sidelines ... . They pierced their tongues and penises with wooden spindles and offered their blood to the spirits ..., requesting spiritual protection for Mapuche warriors in exchange." {piercing of one’s own tongue is done in India by devotees of the god Skanda, who is not only the god of warriors but also is a caelibate male and divine sponsor of male caelibacy; piercing of the penis is also practiced in India}
123 "The male wizards are obliged (as it were) to leave their sex, and to dress themselves in female apparel, and are not permitted to marry, though the female ones ... may."

p. 266, n. 5:7 Some North American Indian hermaphrodite "berdaches" went "alongside warriors, ... carrying the dead".

pp. 118-120 hermaphrodite deity {hermaphroditic deities are common in Africa}

p. Epunamun
118 "Machi weye ... invoked a co-gendered warring spirit called Epunamun – "two feet" {"feet" being here used (like <arabic /rigel/) as a metaphor for genitalia; the name /ePuNeMa/ is likely somehow cognate with the Tupi` place-name (at Ri`o de Janeiro, Brazil) /iPaNeMa/ ‘bad water’, the "2 feet" alluding to its 2 mountains "Dois Irma~os" ‘2 brethren’ : for, Ipanema is renowned as the "gay (homosexual) beach"} ... – that had huge limbs and ... a divine "dual sexual nature."} ["The "dual sexual qualities" of Epunamun are mentioned" (p. 266, m. 5:6).]
120 Multiple forms of Epunamun "were thought to control the power of lightning".

pp. 120-122 foye-weye & lonko

p. heroic figures
120 "Both Spaniards and Mapuche established parallels between the gender identities of celibate Catholic priests and celibate "weye of the foye tree," or boquibuye (foyeweye). Boquibuye, chosen from among the most prestigious longko, carriwed sacred foye branches as symbols of peace during war parleys and lived isolated in caves, which the Spaniards labeled "monasteries." They wore long cloths wrapped around their waists ... as "priestly robes," ... or wigs made from seaweed".
122 "Mapuche chiefs ... tortured their prisoners of war {as also did the Iroquois} and ate their beating hearts during rituals. They ... used prisoners’ heads to drink and divine from, leaving the bodies to scavengers".

pp. 236-238 moon & stars

p. nocturnal sky
236 "Mapuche associate the full moon with Ku:yen-Kushe, the elder and more powerful of two Mapuche ... goddesses. Machi perform rituals on full-moon nights, when they think the moon is most receptive to human petitions. Mapuche associate the new moon with Ku:yen-Ulcha Domo, the younger moon goddess. The seed their crops with the new moon."
237 "The new moon ... has ... beans. The good people, when they die, they go to the moon".
238 "When she performed as a machi moon priestess, she wore her black woolen wrap, colored hair ribbons, and pink-and-blue-dyed ... feathers. ... She painted red and blue stars on her kultrun and sewed blue and white moons and stars on her ritual flags."

Ana Mariella Bacigalupo : Shamans of the Foye Tree. U of TX Pr, Austin, 2007. [authoress of Hungarian maternal ancestry, p. 10]